Outline Definition

Biology Question Bank – 148 MCQs on “Ecology & Environment

Date of publication: 2017-08-25 03:22

6. (c): An ecosystem may be defined as a structural and functional unit of the biosphere comprising living organisms and their non-living environment that interact by means of food chains and chemical cycles resulting in energy flow, biotic diversity and material cycling to form a stable, self supporting system.

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One suspects that Peter Drucker would have supported Frankl’s emphasis on our quest for meaning. Frankl wrote that meaning could be found in three contexts that were close to Drucker’s own experience:

Ecology / Environmental Philosophy - erratic impact/ecologic

The second level, population ecology of organizations, tries to show how the vital rates of one population are affected by other organizational populations.


97. (c): BOD is biochemical oxygen demand which is the oxygen in mg required for 5 days in 6 litre of water at 75°C for the micro-organisms to metabolize organic waste. Due to dumping of huge amount of sewage, the oxygen levels are depleted, which are reflected in terms of BOD values of water. With dumping of wastes number of microbes also increases tremendously and these also consume most of the oxygen, so BOD of the river will increase.

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The third level is community ecology of organizations. This looks as interacting communities of populations (like firms, labor unions, and regulatory agencies).

75. (c): Lead is the most hazardous metal pollutants of automobile exhausts. Its effects are lead poisoning, anaemia, kidney disease and convulsions. It also affects central nervous system and distorts the red blood corpuscles.

675. (d): In a sewage efficient treatment plant (CETP) during the tertiary treatment the decreased water is chlorinated with chlorine or perchlorate salts, ozonised or irradiate with UV to kill pathogens. Phenyl is not used for disinfection of drinking water.

Some water forms an extremely thin, tightly held film around the soil particles it is termed as hygroscopic water. Some water vapour is there in the soil pore spaces. The downward moving water is called gravitational water.

88. (a): Soil particles determines its textures. These particles enclose living spaces in between them call pore space. In coarse textured soils, the pore space is wide but pore frequency is low. But in fine textured soil, the pore space is narrow but pore frequency is high.

It may occur on land or in water, although traditionally thought of as enrichment of Aquatic systems by addition of fertilizers into lakes, bays or other semi-enclosed waters terrestrial ecosystems are subject to similarly adverse impacts, eg cause of algal blooms.

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